Non-governmental organizations are under attack in many countries. China is drafting a new law restricting NGOs and detaining activists for campaigning against sexual harassment. Cambodia’s rulers have threatened to arrest NGO leaders that insult the ruling party, and Indonesia recently imposed tighter limits on NGO activity. India notified nearly 9,000 NGOs that they could no longer receive foreign funds and has been particularly harsh in its crackdown on the Ford Foundation and Greenpeace and. Draft legislation in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikstan—and perhaps soon in Hungary—would mimic Russian legislation by cracking down on “foreign agents.” Even the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia have been intensifying scrutiny of NGO finances and restricting their activity. NGOs have a vital role to play as both watchdogs and advocates: holding government accountable and advancing progressive policy. These chilling assaults on civil society threaten to create a vacuum in which organized dissent is replaced by radicalization and instability.