How will technology shape—and be shaped by—the global transition now underway? Disruptive technologies will influence which future emerges, yet they are subject to social choices yet to be made. This Forum explores these vital questions. Panel 1 focuses on vanguard technologies, such as bioengineering and artificial intelligence, and whether they have a role to play in a Great Transition. Panel 2 explores conceptual frameworks for understanding the interplay between technology and society. Does technology drive history, the reverse, or something else entirely?